How to Calculate GPA and CGPA in Nigerian Universities
How to Calculate GPA and CGPA in Nigerian Universities

Maintaining a strong Grade Point Average (GPA) and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is important for undergraduate students in Nigerian universities. A high GPA can help students stay on the Dean’s List, qualify for merit-based scholarships, and eventually graduate with honors. However, many students struggle to understand how their GPA and CGPA are calculated based on their course grades.

This comprehensive guide aims to explain the calculation process in simple terms. It includes examples to demonstrate how to calculate GPA for individual semesters as well as cumulative CGPA at the end of each academic session or final year. Frequently asked questions are also addressed at the end.

By following the steps outlined in this guide, undergraduate students will be able to easily keep track of their academic progress through GPA and CGPA calculation after each examination period. Let’s get started!

Nigerian University Grading System

Before diving into the calculation, it’s important to understand the grading system used in Nigerian universities. Course grades are awarded on a scale of A to F, which represent the following score ranges and grade points:

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University Grade Points Table

Score (%) Grade Grade Points
70-100 A 5
60-69 B 4
50-59 C 3
45-49 D 2
40-44 E 1
0-39 F 0

Each course taken in a semester has a fixed number of Credit Units (CU). These credit units will be used along with the grade points to calculate Quality Points (QP) for each course.

How to Calculate GPA

GPA stands for Grade Point Average. It is calculated at the end of each semester to measure your academic performance for that period.

To calculate your GPA, follow these steps:

1. Quality Points (QP) Calculation

Quality Points (QP) for each course are calculated by multiplying the grade point obtained with the course credit units.

For example, let’s say you got a B (grade point of 4) in a 3-credit course. Then:

QP = Credit Units x Grade Point
QP = 3 x 4
QP = 12

2. Total Quality Points (TQP)

Add the QP of all courses taken in that semester to get the Total Quality Points (TQP).

3. Total Credit Units (TCU)

Add the credit units of all courses taken to get the Total Credit Units (TCU).

4. GPA Formula

The GPA formula is:

GPA = Total Quality Points (TQP) / Total Credit Units (TCU)

For example, if the TQP is 65 and TCU is 18, then:

GPA = 65 / 18
= 3.61

Sample GPA Calculation for a Semester:

Course CU Grade Grade Point QP = CU x GP
Math101 3 B 4 3 x 4 = 12
English101 2 C 3 2 x 3 = 6
Chem101 3 A 5 3 x 5 = 15

TQP = 12 + 6 + 15 = 33
TCU = 3 + 2 + 3 = 8

= 33/8
= 4.125

How to Calculate CGPA

The Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) shows your overall academic performance from the beginning of your undergraduate program until your graduation year.

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To calculate CGPA:

1. Calculate GPA for Each Semester

Compute the GPA at the end of every semester by following the steps outlined above.

2. Summarize

Total Quality Points (TQP) and Credit Units (TCU) for all semesters.

3. Use the CGPA Formula:

CGPA = Total Quality Points (TQP) / Total Credit Units (TCU)

For example, let’s calculate the CGPA after 2 semesters:

Semester 1:
TQP = 65
TCU = 18
GPA = 3.61

Semester 2:
TQP = 51
TCU = 15
GPA = 3.40

TQP = 65 + 51 = 116
TCU = 18 + 15 = 33

= 116 / 33
= 3.515

Therefore, the CGPA after 2 semesters is 3.515. Repeat this process each academic year.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is there a minimum CGPA to graduate?

Yes, the minimum CGPA required varies based on the degree classification:

  1. First Class: 4.5 – 5.0 CGPA
  2. Second Class Upper: 3.5 – 4.49 CGPA
  3. Second Class Lower: 2.4 – 3.49 CGPA
  4. Third Class: 1.5 – 2.39 CGPA

2. How is CGPA calculated for direct-entry students?

Direct entry students start from their second year after completing a diploma program. Their CGPA is normally calculated like a four-year program divided by 3 years instead of 4 years.

3. What if I repeat or carry over a course?

The new grade obtained after re-taking a course is the one considered. Failed courses are not calculated in the CGPA.

4. Can I still get a good class after a poor first year?

Yes, it is still possible if you work hard and consistently score above average in the remaining years. Improving your study skills is key.

5. How many credits must I complete each year?

Full-time students typically enroll between 15-24 credits per session and are required to complete a minimum of 30 credits per academic year.

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6. Does my JAMB scores count toward my CGPA?

No, JAMB results do not contribute towards undergraduate CGPA calculation in Nigerian universities. Only results from 100L and above are considered.

7. What if I need to extend my program duration?

Most Nigerian universities allow a grace period. However, if extended beyond the approved period, you may be asked to withdraw from the program.

8. How can I improve my GPA?

Focus on individual subjects, use past question papers to study, form study groups, ask lecturers for clarification, and get early assistance if struggling in any subjects.

9. How can I check my grades and calculate my GPA?

Check results notification boards on campus or log in to your school portal/management information system. You can also calculate manually as described above.

10. When should I start calculating my CGPA?

It’s best to start tracking your GPA right from your first semester results. Calculating CGPA each year will help you monitor your academic progress.


GPA and CGPA are important metrics that determine your academic standing and eligibility for merit-based opportunities like scholarships. This guide has explained the Nigerian university grading system and provided a step-by-step approach to calculating GPA for individual semesters as well as cumulative CGPA.

Following these principles consistently will help students keep a clear record of their grades and benchmark their progress toward the desired degree classification. With determination and effective study skills, students can boost their GPAs each semester and eventually graduate with excellent cumulative scores.


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